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Origins[ edit ] The title is a reference to a fragment attributed to the Ancient Greek poet Archilochus: In Erasmus 's Adagia fromthe expression is recorded as Multa novit vulpes, verum echinus unum magnum.
The fable of The Fox and the Cat embodies the same idea. Berlin expands upon this idea to divide writers and thinkers into two categories: Turning to TolstoyBerlin contends that at first glance, Tolstoy escapes definition into one of the two groups.
He postulates that while Tolstoy's talents are those of a fox, his beliefs are that one ought to be a hedgehog and so Tolstoy's own voluminous assessments of his own work are misleading. Berlin goes on to use this idea of Tolstoy as a basis for an analysis of the theory of history that Tolstoy presents in his novel War and Peace.
In the latter half of the essay, Berlin illuminates Tolstoy by an extended comparison between him and the early 19th-century thinker Joseph de Maistrea comparison that gains in piquancy because while Tolstoy and de Maistre held violently contrasting views on more superficial matters, they held some profoundly similar views about the fundamental nature of existence and the limits of a rational, scientific approach to it.
In the final few paragraphs of the essay, Berlin reasserts his thesis that Tolstoy was by nature a fox but by conviction a hedgehog and goes on to say that the division within himself caused him great pain at the end of his life. The essay has been published separately and as part of the collection Russian Thinkers, edited by Henry Hardy and Aileen Kelly.
The essay also appears in a widely-representative anthology of Berlin's essays, The Proper Study of Mankind.
Influence[ edit ] Some authors Michael Walzerfor example have used the same pattern of description for Berlin himself, as a person who knows many things, compared to the purported narrowness of many other contemporary political philosophers.
Berlin's former student, Canadian philosopher Charles Taylorhas been dubbed a hedgehog by Berlin and readily admitted to it in an interview after receiving the Templeton Prize.
Tetlocka political psychology professor at the University of Pennsylvaniadrew heavily on this distinction in his exploration of the accuracy of experts and forecasters in various fields especially politics in his book Expert Political Judgment: How Good Is It?
How Can We Know?. The historian Joseph Ellisin his Founding Brothers about key figures of the American Revolution, uses Berlin's "Hedgehog and Fox" concept in evaluating George Washingtonnoting that "Washington was an archetypal hedgehog. And the one big thing he knew was that America's future as a nation lay to the West, in its development over the next century of a continental empire," which was one of the reasons, according to Ellis, of Washington being devoted to construction of canals.
Collins refers to the story in his book Good to Great where he clearly shows his preference towards Hedgehog mentality. The artist Richard Serra referenced the name in the title of his sculpture installed at Princeton University campus in Music historian Berthold Hoeckner applies and extends Berlin's distinction in his essay "Wagner and the Origin of Evil.
He cites the work of Philip E. Tetlock on the accuracy of political forecasts in the United States during the Cold War while he was a professor of political science at the University of California, Berkeley. Silver's news website, fivethirtyeight.
New American Library; New York, TIP Sheet WRITING A COMPARE/CONTRAST PAPER. A compare and contrast essay examines two or more topics (objects, people, or ideas, for example), comparing their similarities and contrasting their differences.
The Online Writing Lab (OWL) at Purdue University houses writing resources and instructional material, and we provide these as a free service of the Writing Lab at Purdue. This article is written like a personal reflection or opinion essay that states a Wikipedia editor's personal feelings about a topic.
Please help improve it by rewriting it in an encyclopedic style. (May ) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) (Learn how and when to remove this template message). Introduction to Christianity Comparing the beliefs of Roman Catholics & conservative Protestants Sponsored link.
Overview: This essay compares the beliefs of Roman Catholicism with the conservative wing of Protestantism.
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Of the silent trilogy, Earth () is Dovzhenko’s most accessible film but, perhaps for these same reasons, most misunderstood. In a Brussels’ film jury would vote Earth as one of the great films of all time. Earth marks a threshold in Dovzhenko’s career emblematic of a turning point in the Ukrainian cultural and political avant-garde - the end of one period and transition to another.